Category: Tech

How Crisis Helped In Digitalization
June 7th, 2022 by shari01

The Outbreak of COVID-19 devastated and damaged a lot of businesses. It gave birth to new challenges, one of them being the mode of business. Online businesses have been booming since the 2000 internet revolution. Some adopted it early, giving us solutions like Amazon. But some of them still choose the traditional way of dealing. Industries like clothing shops, jewelry, stationery & daily-consumable shops still do business in an old way. Many of these forcefully adopted the new model of business for their business. Even for IT services like IBM, many adapted to the remote work basis for their work. For bigger companies, it meant major changes. It as a result caused a lot of anxiety.

But not all businesses were scared of digitalization. We saw many businesses adapting to the new way of the world too. As a need of the hour, it also served as a gift towards the companies. They explored new techniques for better business execution. Some of these techniques challenge businesses and help them get comfortable with failures. Let’s Dive into some of these methods and explore digitalization.

Agile Methodologies

Agile Methodology helps you identify smaller goals for your organization by breaking up tasks into smaller ones. It involves the collaboration of stakeholders & betterment of products on each of the smaller goals. Monitored work in many different stages, such as planning, execution, & performance checks, can help boost productivity. It helps businesses identify problems on ground levels and help create impact. It also helps automate processes and constant evaluations of work progress & resource management.

Workspace Organization Techniques

When owning a small business and trying to create an impact on business level, things can get a little bit busier. It means you can be dealing with a lot of traffic & can’t find the best ways to organize your work. Digitalization has introduced a lot of new workspaces organization tools like Google Workspaces. You can use these tools to your advantage and manage time & leads across your time better. This will help you identify the proper process for your business execution.

Business Automation

Business automation is a way to reduce human efforts and run business processes using modern tools without human intervention. Ecommerce is the best example of business Automation. For a Clothing store, a simple eCommerce app can help in inventory keeping, sales tracking, analysis & promotions. E-Commerce has transformed the way of buying things and has helped us better businesses.

Lead Generation

Digital lead generation can help you in generating leads for potential sales. It can help you make different funnels for your organization, are deployed online & attract users worldwide with similar interests. It can help boost sales and in turn revenue for your business. It can also help you identify the best ways to minimize efforts & healthily generate numbers. Affiliate programs are an example of lead generation, and many businesses have adopted them. An affiliate program can help you make sales for your business, such that people promote your services on their own. It can be helpful when you want to build consumer trust and boost sales simultaneously.

But How to Do It?

Now we know how digitalization can help your business, how can we achieve digitalization progressively? You can achieve digitalization for your organization by employing Digital Transformation companies & these companies can help you organize your business digitally. They will also help you as a software development agency to make efficient solutions for your business. These companies can help you automate business execution & help you grow exponentially. These companies can also help explore innovative and new-standard business processes in the most friendly learning way possible.

Also Read: Decoding Metaverse: definition, technologies & how to enter a Metaverse?

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white chromebook
May 31st, 2022 by shari01

A Chromebook can be any laptop that runs Google’s Chrome OS operating system, Chrome OS. Most of the Chrome OS applications and documents are available online or in the “cloud”. It is intended to be used only with an internet connection and doesn’t have much storage space. They run on Chrome OS and include the Chrome browser. Google’s entry into the lucrative mobile computing market with the white chromebook is not only android. Google’s operating system is at the heart of the Chromebook.

The Chromebook is a browser, and instead of a desktop interface, it has a Solid State Drive. These devices boot very fast and are available immediately after waking up from sleep. A media player, a file manager, and Wi-Fi and 3G connectivity are also available in USA. These devices typically come with a full-size keyboard and 10-12 inch displays. They weigh in at around 3-4 pounds exactly.

Mini Laptop Considered As White Chromebook

The Chromebook laptop is a mini-laptop that can be used to create a tablet like the iPad. With the exception of an optical drive, you will find almost everything that you’d expect on a laptop in the white chromebook. The Chromebook has USB ports and connections such as HDMI or VGA. It also features a touchpad, memory card readers, and a webcam.

The most important feature of a white chromebook, however, is something that you cannot see by simply looking at it. This feature is actually the most important reason to get one. What is this crucial feature? It has everything to do with online storage. It is what some idiot calls “in the cloud” (or “cloud computing”) – which confuses and mystifies the simple process of storing your content online on a third-party server.

Similar to your web-based email accounts like Gmail. It also offers convenient backup. You do not need to worry about downloading or storing material on your device, which could pose security risks if you are not careful. This brings us to the second reason to purchase a white chromebook. Let us look at each one in detail on how to make your mouse white on chromebook.

white chromebook


This is the main reason why you would choose a walmart chromebook. Secondly, they are lightweight and small, so you can carry them around with you. This device is ideal for students in the classroom or those on the move.

You will need to spend $1,449 to get an advanced model with 4G LTE technology. Let us find out more about why is my chromebook screen white and see if Google has achieved impressive results with the Chromebook.


The white chromebook is a Netbook, which means that it can connect you to the internet at all times. Wi-Fi or 3G allows you to stay connected with family, friends, and coworkers around the clock. Lastly, Verizon offers to include 100MB of free 3G monthly access for up to two years.

Safety Measures

A white chromebook security is another reason to buy it. For securing purposes  Chromebook was designed. It has many security features such as data encryption and sandboxing, verified booting, and verified booting.

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Should fixing the shift handover take 70 steps?
December 28th, 2021 by shari01

Effective communication is an important feature and the foundation of every workplace,  because it decides what the outcome of the work done is going to look like. When a team hands over a work to the next team, there is always a probability of details getting overlooked or missed out, as a result of which the final result can get messed up, leading to questioning of miscommunications and misunderstandings, which can further delay the whole team’s work. The process of shift handover depends on communication and comprehension, which adds up to ensure continuity of work. The result of miscommunication will be a serious mistake that is likely to take up a lot of time trying to fix it, which is why sitting down, having a proper conversation with the team members or the employee who just handed over the work to you, and noting down the things that are likely to be missed, is considered as important to ensuring continuity to the workflow. Safety, looking at the possible things that can go wrong, communication and comprehension, responsibility to take up work, and sincerity at taking care of things are some points that need to be kept in mind while you deal with a shift handover. Shift handovers reduce the pressure of getting a chunk of work completely done by yourself, as it gets distributed, taking workload off you. But it can get even worse if the person who took over from you missed a very significant point that you mentioned, or if you yourself forgot to mention it at all.

A standard procedure needs to be established in order to ensure that work is shifted easily between individuals and teams. In several countries, each company will have a defined procedure on how shift handovers should be executed in accordance with their operational requirements and policies. While this is done with a rigid plan of operation,  with well-defined rules and details in some companies, the others just dismiss it without giving much priority, placing the responsibility of shift handovers to certain employees, without following a structural layout for it.


Since shifts take place countless times a year at a single workplace itself, there is a very high probability of miscommunications to occur and delay the whole work due to the ignorance and lack of responsibility of some individuals. Making sure that the shift handover automation procedure is well managed is a feature of priority that needs to be taken care of extremely well.

Tips for efficient shift handover

Go Digital for Efficient Shift Handovers - Features - The Chemical Engineer

Since we have come to a conclusion that mistakes and miscommunications in employee shift handover can lead to a break in the continuity of workflow, and can negatively affect the result of a work, let us see how this can be fixed. Does fixing shift handovers need 70 steps? The answer is -absolutely no. It is a very easy process to smoothen out the ways in which work is handed out and to fill the holes that are lying around in the way of getting work passed on to another individual.

  • In order to ensure strong communication between individuals, the form and method of communication can be documented in an organized manner, ideally in an electronic mode so that everyone can get easy access to it, without having the fear of losing it.
  • Experienced individuals should be appointed to oversee the work that is handed over, ensuring that there is a smooth flow of workload. They should be equipped with excellent comprehension skills and should be very responsible with their work, as one mistake can break the flow of the entire work. 
  • Important information should be made highly visible to all the team members, making sure that nobody misses anything, even a minute and insignificant detail. Information should also be categorized according to the priority given to each work so that the individuals can focus on the work that needs to be completed immediately.
  • Relevant information regarding shift and safety should easily be shared, and should be within the reach of all individuals. Developing a staff shift scheduling software and using it for this purpose can be very useful to lessen the number of miscommunications.
  • A training session can be held for all the employees to enhance their communication skills and for a better undertaking of responsibilities. 
  • Information should also contain the reason as to why a particular set of work is handed over and should not just contain the material that needs to be worked on, so that the person who works next has a better understanding of their responsibilities, and what contribution they can make to the work to produce the best results. 
  • Meetings and discussions need to be conducted in order to facilitate face to face communication. This can also instill confidence and support in the workers, leading to a better outcome within the desired period of time.


Shift handovers can be less stressful and even more fun if you develop a healthy bond with the people at your work. So trying to maintain healthy relationships is also a fantastic way to keep the workflow going.

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December 11th, 2021 by shari01

I have two table dues and souvenirs haveing a similar column std_id. I want to update both of them using transaction but my code returns 1.

 db.transaction((trx) => {
    return db("dues")
      .where({ std_id: stdid })
        level_100: level100,
        level_200: level200,
        level_300: level300,
        level_400: level400,

      .then(() => {
        return db("souvenirs")
            std_id: stdid,
            t_shirt: tshirt,
            books: books,
      .then((row) => console.log(row))
      .catch((err) => console.log(err));

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How To Use Silicon Drift Detectors – The Ultimate Guide
August 27th, 2021 by shari01

EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) is a well-known technique for determining the elemental composition using an electron microscope’s beam.

The approach takes advantage of the fact that when an orbital electron is displaced by an electron from the microscope beam, an X-ray is produced. The identification of an element is then based on the analysis of its X-ray energy, which is a fundamental property of that element.

Material can be described at a single location by a value that indicates the ratios of elements (so-called quant’) or by an elemental map that depicts the individual constituent concentrations as a sequence of color-coded pictures at an array of points across the sample.

What are Silicon Drift Detectors, and how do they work?

EDS requires a microscope equipped with an X-ray detector, as well as necessary hardware and software outside the microscope.

Silicon drift energy-dispersive X-ray detectors (SDD) have become increasingly popular in recent years. There has been a significant decline in the usage of more classic Si(Li) type detectors, which has made SDD the sensor of choice for the majority. 

SDDs with large active areas, such as the X-Max, now allow users to gather vast quantities of data in shorter periods, at lower excitation voltages, and under standard SEM imaging circumstances, in addition to being liquid nitrogen-free having good energy resolution at high count rates.

Semtech Solutions explains how SDD hardware detects, measures, and transforms X-rays into signals that EDS software may utilize to deliver accurate and reliable analysis.

What Is a Silicon Drift Detector and How Does It Work?

The EDS detector converts the energy of each individual X-ray into a proportional voltage signal. Towards this end, a three-stage process is: As soon as atoms in the semiconductor crystal are ionized, they become charged, which is then later converted into a voltage signal by the FET preamplifier. Finally, the voltage signal is sent into the pulse processor, where it is measured. The preamplifier’s output is a voltage ‘ramp,’ with each X-ray appearing as a voltage step on the ramp.

EDS detectors are built to convert X-ray radiation to voltage signals as precisely as feasible. Simultaneously, electronic noise must be reduced to detect the lowest X-ray energy.

The silicon drift detector (SDD) sensor is made of high-purity silicon and has a large-area contact on the entry side, which faces the incoming X-rays. A center, tiny anode contact is encircled by a series of concentric drift electrodes on the opposite side.

As part of the testing of the SDD detector chip, the chip is biased before being exposed to radiation. An electron cloud is created for each X-ray detected. Each electron cloud has a To do so requires the insertion of high-speed electrons, which are accelerated into the silicon semiconductor’s conduction band, leaving holes that The electrons are caught at the anode after they have drifted down a field gradient generated between the rings and have been captured there.

The FET preamplifier converts the charge that accumulates at the anode into a voltage signal. The feedback capacitor accumulates commission during operation.

Current leakage from the sensor material and X-ray-generated charge from photons absorbed in the detector are the two sources of this charge. The charge build-up in the preamplifier results in a continuously growing voltage ‘ramp’ due to leakage current, with quick steps overlaid due to the demand produced by each X-ray incident.

To keep the preamplifier from becoming saturated, the accumulated charge must be replenished regularly.

As a result, the capacitor is drained at a predetermined charge level, a process known as restoration or ‘reset.’

Silicon drift detectors for high count rate X-ray spectroscopy at room temperature - ScienceDirect

Noise causes variations in the output waveform, limiting the precision with which each step can be measured. If the measurement is inaccurate, the histogram of sizes for photons of the same energy is spread out. As a result, noise impacts the breadth of X-ray peaks, especially at low points.

The FET gain, input capacitance, and leakage current all impact noise.

To differentiate low-energy X-rays like beryllium K, silicon Ll, and aluminum Ll from noise variations, minimal noise is necessary.

An SDD detector’s components are as follows:

Collimator assembly

The collimator creates a limiting aperture through which X-rays must travel to reach the scanning tunneling electron microscope detector. This guarantees that only X-rays from the area stimulated by the electron beam are detected and that stray X-rays from other areas of the microscope chamber are ignored, and microscope preventive maintenance measures are taken.

Electron trap

Background artifacts are caused by electrons that pass through the detector, and the measurement chain is also overloaded. Any passing electrons are forcefully deflected by the electron trap, which is a permanent magnet assembly. Because beryllium windows are thicker and more efficient at absorbing electrons below 20 keV, this configuration is only essential for detectors with thin polymers. 


As a vacuum barrier, the window is as transparent as feasible to low-energy X-rays while maintaining vacuum. In both cases, there are advantages and disadvantages to each kind In spite of the fact that Beryllium (Be) is highly strong and durable, it is exceptionally effective at blocking ultra-low-energy X-rays, allowing only sodium (Na) In the event that they’re placed on a supporting grid, these window materials can stand up to the difference in pressure between the detector vacuum and a vented microscope chamber at Polymer-based windows have mainly supplanted Be as the material used for detector windows due to its higher transmission. Windowless detectors can be used in devices that operate under very high vacuum settings, like as TEMs, allowing for even higher sensitivity in light microscope and electron microscope.

The detector

The sensor is a semiconductor device that transforms an X-ray of specific energy into an electric charge of proportionate size via the ionization process. Traditional silicon crystals drifted with lithium, known as ‘Si(Li),’ and modern quicker Silicon Drift Detectors (‘SDD’), which have essentially supplanted them, are used for X-ray detection. SDD devices gather the charge released by each X-ray detected at the anode using a field gradient supplied by ring electrodes on the back surface.

The Fet

The sensor is directly linked to the field-effect transistor (also known as the FET). The charge released in the crystal by an incident X-ray is measured and converted to a voltage output in the first stage of the amplification process.

Cooling of the detector

SDD detectors are cooled by Peltier (thermoelectric) devices attached to the SDD sensor and function at a few tens of degrees below zero. A cold finger or heat pipe transfers heat from these devices to cooling fins in the detector’s body, where it is dissipated.

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Utilize These Six Secret Electron Beam Lithography Techniques
August 27th, 2021 by shari01

Photolithography masks can be made using EBL, which is used in many different applications. In addition to being time-consuming, EBL requires that the pattern be written consecutively. To reduce the writing time, a variety of methods are employed. The acceleration voltage applied by EBL instruments used in industrial applications is typically very high (50 kV).

However, more cost-effective instruments are used in many research environments. However, they are not very fast and are usually optimized for high-resolution writing. Even for limited resolution applications, they are generally not considered suitable for writing large-scale structures with high pattern density. As the authors demonstrate in this paper using the Raith e LiNE EBL instrument, optimizing the writing parameters can reduce the writing time by over 40 times compared to standard instrument settings.

Photolithography masks with high precision have been made using the optimization procedure by the authors. The instrument software estimated a write time of about 14 days for the most commonly used settings. When compared to conventional chrome masks, our pattern definition is significantly better.

Several methods of mask-free printing. The most common are electron beam lithography (EBL), direct laser writing 1,2, and interference lithography. Besides focusing on beam lithography and dip-pen lithography, other techniques are becoming more and more important today.

As a result of its ability to write patterns with high resolution down to a few nanometers, EBL is widely used in many nanotechnology-related research fields. EBL writing exposes a resistor with a tightly focused beam of electrons, which is developed later. In order to create the final structure, the resist pattern can be processed in a variety of ways. EBL is not diffraction-limited under typical operating conditions because the wavelength of the electrons is in the range of picometers or less. The resists and the subsequent processing steps are the main obstacles to achieving high resolution in an EBL system. Because of its extremely high resolution (line widths can be as small as 10 nm), poly(methyl methacrylate) is one of the most widely used resists.

Most of the patterning time is spent on resist exposure, stage movement (for structures larger than a single write-field), and electron beam settling in electron lithography. If you’re using EBL software to ensure that the beam is stable at each new location, then the settling time is typically built into the software. The maximum achievable beam current is physically limited by space charge effects. When using serial exposure with only one beam, the patterning time will be limited by this value. Because the overall beam current can be higher, shaped beams and multi-beam exposure tools can be faster.

Both the exposure time and idle time should be minimized in order to increase write speed on any EBL device. When exposed to a 50 kV electron beam, the sensitivity of newer resists, such as the negative tone resist SU-8, has been reported to be as high as 3.6 C/cm2.

Look at these secret techniques for improving electron beam lithography systems:

How to find out how much acceleration you have

Resistance clearance dose increases as acceleration voltage increases. Why? Because the forward-scattered electrons are more efficient at energy transfer to the resistor at lower acceleration voltages (10 kV), resulting in lower clearance dose requirements but at the cost of a broader incident beam spot and rougher line surfaces.

Additionally, the amount of clearance dose required is highly dependent on the developer type and development process used.

Collimation Aperture Size Selection

To collimate and current-limit the electron beam, a beamline with interchangeable apertures can be used to collimate the beam. A collimating aperture of 120 microns diameter was used to increase the beam current, allowing more electrons from the filament to reach the sample. Standard features of an electron microscope include a collimating aperture in the electron column. Basically, it’s a way to change the numerical aperture of the beam. As a result, smaller apertures result in a smaller numerical aperture and, therefore, a larger depth field. Despite the fact that Raith was unable to provide precise information on the numerical aperture, they did state that the field of depth typically changed from approximately 10 to 1–2 m when switching between the 30 and 120 m diameter apertures.

electron-beam lithography system - Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB)

The high current mode should be enabled.

Raith offers a “high current” mode in which the condenser lens’ focusing properties are altered, resulting in a smaller, parallel beam. The beam current will be approximately doubled in this mode. Due to the effects of space charge, the final resolution will be slightly reduced, but the smaller, parallel beam will increase the depth of focus. Using the collimating aperture with a diameter of 120 m and an acceleration voltage of 10 kV, we measured a beam current of 6.8 nA.

Enter the field size

The typical size of a write field is 100 m 100 m. Since we used a very large write-field (the maximum is 2000 m 2000 m), we could reproduce the pattern with a 100-fold reduction in the number of write fields. Since the sample stage will move and settle faster, this will reduce the sample stage’s moving and settling time by 100.

Using larger write fields has a number of drawbacks. Since the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) of the pattern generator has a limited addressable resolution (16 bits in our case), the minimum step size is reduced. Although the EBL’s addressable step size is limited, it is still very small for write fields 1000 m 1000 m. We can calculate the minimum addressable step size for the 16-bit DAC used in the Raith e LiNE and the large write fields.

Write mode

Within one write-field, there are generally two ways to move the beam around raster and vector scan. Using a raster scan is the simplest method, but it takes longer. As the beam passes over areas that need to be exposed, it is unblanked. Technically more difficult, the vector scan directs the beam to each area that needs to be exposed and only scans over the areas that need to be exposed. The amount of time that can be saved by using a vector scan is highly dependent on the type of pattern that is being created, so keep this in mind. 

Step size and beam speed

This is done in the e LiNE design software using the GDSII Raith lithography module. When it comes to integrated circuits, the GDSII format is a common one to use. In addition to bitmaps and other pattern file formats, other file types can also be imported. A bitmap can be imported into e LiNE software using the “bitmap as reference” mode. It is also possible to use the “bitmap as reference” format when using the line or meander mode. The beam will scan the entire write field, un blanking and blanking for exposure, respectively.

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AI in Healthcare
August 23rd, 2021 by shari01

What do you think of when you hear the term “Artificial Intelligence”? Do you think of robots hell-bent on taking over the Earth? Or maybe cyborgs from futuristic worlds? The idea of artificial intelligence and its related technologies is enough to stir anyone’s imagination but the truth of the matter is that artificial intelligence (AI) is not something that exists only in fiction. It’s all around us, and in the last decade or so has become more prevalent in the field of healthcare.

With rapid technological advancements, AI is on track to perform several medical tasks just as well, if not better than humans in the distant future. Before we take a deeper dive into the world of AI in healthcare, let us first define what “AI” actually means.

Artificial Intelligence refers to the series of technologies a computer or machine can utilize to learn and accomplish specific tasks.

Let’s take a closer look at some of these technologies and their relevance to the medical field.

Machine Learning

Machine learning is the process of programming a machine to learn information and recognize patterns without the aid of a human. The machines are fed data that then “teaches” the machine by revealing its complicated algorithms and formulas. Over time, as more information is fed, the machine’s output becomes more precise. The ability to recognize patterns can be extremely useful in the medical field.

For example, neural networks are used in medical imaging and radiology. Artificial Neural Networks (or ANN) mimic the way biological neurons signal one another in the human brain. This technology can detect and identify tumors or cancerous regions of an organ much faster and more efficiently than the human eye.

These devices are used to aid radiologists in making intelligent decisions. Machine learning algorithms can also provide clinical decision support (CDS) to doctors and physicians which can be used to streamline health records and improve patient care. CDS tools are able to analyze large amounts of data and recommend doctors with the best course of action.

Natural Language Processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is the branch of AI pertaining to the exchange between machines and natural human languages. This technology includes applications such as speech recognition software, translators, and more. NLP software’s can be seen all around us, most commonly in devices such as Amazon’s “Alexa” and Apple’s “Siri.”

In the field of medicine, NLP systems can be used to accomplish specific tasks such as summarizing large amounts of data and recognizing key ideas in the source material. Using this technology, doctors can enhance the integrity and accuracy of health records and clinical notes.

Huge amounts of information are stored in health records every day, and it can become very difficult for a physician to have to sift through all the data to find relevant information for each of their patients. NLP systems can be used as a solution to this problem by translating all the data into simple, easy to understand documentation that can be useful to doctors.

Diagnosis Applications

AI in the healthcare sector in China: current trends and applications

Diagnosing and treating different diseases has been a huge area of focus for AI as far back as the early 1970’s. Much like an NLP, these rule-based systems store data and interpret it in a more comprehensive way. While early diagnosis and treatment applications showed promise, they were not significantly better than human diagnostics and thus were not validated for clinical practice.

An early example of this is the Stanford developed AI, MYCIN, a program designed to diagnose and treat blood infections. The program would receive information about the patient’s symptoms and medical tests and would then make a diagnosis based on the data.

Perhaps a more famous example of a diagnosis application is IBM’s “Watson,” a computer system designed to answer questions. In February of 2013, it was announced that IBM’s Watson technology would be used at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City for utilization review decisions for lung cancer treatment. Watson uses a combination of both machine learning and NLP abilities.

Despite the advancements in the technology, these types of applications are still mainly used in research laboratories rather than clinical practice.

Ethical Challenges of AI in Healthcare

The introduction of AI in healthcare has raised several questions concerning the ethical implications of machinery doing the work that was traditionally done by humans. Many experts fear that perhaps the biggest problem is the issue of transparency. It may prove difficult for an AI software to emphasize with a patient. When a patient is diagnosed with a condition or disease, it is logical to assume they would want an explanation or more information. With AI it is often hard to interpret how they reach their conclusions and the systems will not be able to provide an explanation.

Another issue pertaining to AI is accountability. As with any developing Ai technology, mistakes are bound to happen and it may be more difficult to hold an algorithm or software accountable.

As previously stated, AI programs learn by being fed data. This means the programs can only be as good as the information it learns from. This can lead to algorithmic bias which can affect the reliability of the programs.

Future of AI in Healthcare

The role of artificial intelligence in healthcare has grown exponentially in the last couple of years and isn’t showing signs of stopping any time soon. The potential for this kind of technology is almost unimaginable. That’s not to say this machinery does not come with its own set of problems yet to be overcome. These include concerns with privacy and the integrity of AI programs.

These concerns fall once again under the issue of accountability. Before AI can be widely adopted in the field of medicine, procedures must be put in place that can ensure data privacy and accuracy.

Despite the uncertainties, what is certain is that the future of robotics and the future of medicine are deeply intertwined. And while AI systems may not replace human physicians and workers in the medical field, it may become more common to see the two working alongside each other in the coming years.

Written By Ruth Vargas

Born and raised in Montgomery County, Maryland, Ruth received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology in 2018 from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Her current position as a housing case manager involves working with individuals experiencing homelessness. Fluent in English and Spanish, Ruth has years of experience as a freelancer, often ghostwriting and providing virtual assistant services. In her free time, Ruth plays piano and occasionally teaches piano.

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7 Ways To Reinvent Your Electron Beam Lithography
August 5th, 2021 by shari01

Electron Beam Lithography that uses a concentrated electron beam to produce models involves the modification of material, deposition of materials (additives), or removal of materials (subtractive). Electronic beam lithography is a common manufacturing technique in the semiconductor industry because of its high resolution, simplicity, and absence of masking needs. Electron Beam Lithography uses an electron beam to create patterns on the surface of materials covered with resistance.

Surfaces with dimensions as tiny as a few nanometers can be patterned, either by covering chosen portions of the surface with the resistor by exposing sections that would otherwise be covered with it. It’s possible to treat the exposed portions for etching or thin-film deposition while protecting the covered parts. E-beam lithography has an advantage over photolithography due to the shorter wavelength of electrons accelerated to high speeds.

Due to the extremely short quantum mechanical wavelength of high-energy electrons, Electron Beam Lithography does not have a diffraction restriction on the lowest feature dimension. However, it can also be influenced by forward and backscattering from the substrate and resistance.

Many Electron Beam Lithography mechanisms and systems are complex as well as heavy. Electron Beam Lithographic’s single-beam writing technique is also not able to compete in terms of throughput with massively parallel optical devices. Since ebeam lithography is not utilized in high-volume production, it’s mostly used for masks. In any case, there are now initiatives underway to reduce the size of this sort of equipment and to improve its throughput.

Microfabrication and nanofabrication are the major interests in advances in electron beam microscope applications, as these devices may be modified to serve as writing tools in theory. Desktop-sized electron beam microscopes have been produced by miniaturizing and combining components such as low-power electron guns and columns.

Similarly, researchers are exploring innovative concepts that will make Electron Beam Lithography more attractive in industrial manufacturing. Potentially, the construction of higher-throughput EBL systems can be achieved by using several parallel beamlets from field emitter arrays (FEA). Therefore let’s check out some of the best ways we could reinvent electron beam lithography systems:

Advanced Methods and Techniques For Fabrication

Laser beam lithography uses focused electron beams to write patterns at the nanoscale on resists. A method being implemented by the major E Beam lithography companies. PMMA is a typical e-beam resist whose solubility changes when exposed to e-beam radiation. This causes local chain scission, which makes PMMA a positive resist. e-beam lithography can produce ultrahigh-resolution patterns because the wavelength of high-energy electrons is typically less than 0.01 nm (e.g., 0.005 nm for 50 keV). The resolution of E-beam lithography can be determined by scattering of primary as well as secondary electrons in the resistance film and the substrate. Because e-beam lithography is a serial process, it is unsuitable for mass production, as are other beam-based writing methods (ion beam and laser). For this reason, it is extensively used for R&D or pilot manufacturing and photomask fabrication for optical lithography, among other applications.

Magnetic Junction Fabrications

Electron beam lithography, for example, is capable of significantly higher patterning resolution than traditional methods (as small as a few nanometers). The use of electron beam lithography in the manufacturing of photomasks is equally essential. A kind of mask-free lithography, in which the final pattern is generated without the need of an actual mask, is electron beam lithography. When an electron beam scans a resist-coated substrate, the final pattern is generated directly from the digital representation on a computer. Laser lithography is slower than photolithography.

Surface Patterning

Electron Beam Lithography employs similar patterning principles as a focused light. To write with an E-beam stylus, a concentrated beam of electrons (e-beam) is utilized as the stylus. When the e-beam energy is concentrated, it might cause crosslinking. Its resolution is higher than direct-write photolithography since the e-beam radiation is shorter in wavelength than that employed in photolithography. With feature sizes of 10–100 nanometers, Electron Beam Lithography is a highly effective method for generating patterns at the nanoscale. Low throughput and cost make EBL a viable approach for nanoscale pattern creation over a small region. Patterning by e-beam radiation may be used to selectively bind biomolecules to patterned structures, which is an excellent example of patterning by EBL.

electron-beam lithography system - Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB)

Nanostructured Materials and Solids

EBL reaches clearly lower size limitations for both clusters and distances between them, compared to photolithography. UV, Roentgen, and fast electrons are all used in the same way to produce photoresists, and the lithographic companies using these manufacturing routes are quite similar. “Serial” writing is the only application of e-beam lithography.

Charged Particles Optics

It has become more important in the drive for micro miniaturization. As a result, the optical characteristics of such coupled devices, including their aberrations, have been carefully investigated. Because the electron beam must be deflected far from the optical axis, it is vital to keep the detrimental effect of these aberrations modest.

Micro Structured Molds And Embossing

Electron beam lithography is an important stage in micro structuring since it is one of the touchpoints between a computer-aided design (CAD) and a fabricated component. With an electron beam focused at less than 10 nanometers, this method allows one to form a photoresist with great precision, but limited depth. This method is used to fabricate masks for UV and X-ray lithography, as well as for other applications. E-beam lithography is a sequential technique compared to UV and X-ray lithography. This leads to processing times that are rather long. On the other hand, due to its great resolution, E-Beam Lithography may also be utilized to fabricate molds, especially for structures in the nanoscale range.

Devices and Applications

Electron beam or optical lithography coupled with wet and dry etching are most often used to build planar PhCs operating from visible to infrared wavelengths. Other techniques, like focused ion beam drilling, have also been employed to manufacture them.

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Why Should Every Business Hire a Digital Marketing Agency?
July 4th, 2021 by shari01

When it comes to promoting your business across the internet, a digital marketing services company is exactly what you need to find. As the name suggests, the very purpose of a digital marketing company is to market a brand, product or service through the internet. Digital marketing has gained substantial importance in recent times, with every brand trying to gain an edge over its competitors. Considering how important marketing is for any business, it is easy to understand why. Leading digital marketing agencies like Neuronimbus continue to deliver better exposure to online ventures.

What Exactly Is Digital Marketing and Why Does It Matter?

Digital marketing refers to any marketing activities such as sending promotional messages, through electronic devices, particularly over the internet. Examples of digital marketing include online videos, website blogs, social media posts and more. However, digital marketing is more complex than it may seem. A successful digital marketing campaign calls for plenty of planning, tracking, optimizations and analysis.

Currently, a majority of the people get online daily, while many are almost constantly online. Thus, as a business owner, you must remember that a majority of your customers have an online presence and so should you. Through digital marketing, a company can reach out to its target customers seamlessly.

Why Is Digital Marketing Essential for A Business?

Often, business owners assume that a strong traditional marketing campaign through billboards, TV ads, etc. would be enough to put their brand at the top. While it is true that a well-organized marketing campaign of this time can bear good results, digital marketing still holds a crucial place. Here are a few reasons why every business should launch a digital marketing campaign:

  1. Large Audience

By not having an online presence, you would be staying away from a majority of your target customers. Almost everyone uses the internet today and chances are high that your marketing campaign would reach the customers that you want to attract. In fact, digital marketing is quickly becoming more important than traditional marketing. The chances of your customers coming across your brand on the internet are significantly higher than that of people noticing an ad on the TV or a billboard.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness

One of the best things about digital marketing is that it is extremely cost-effective. Advertising your business online is much cheaper than renting a billboard. Even without paying for ads, you could get your website to draw heavy traffic through search engine optimization. Marketing costs often constitute a major portion of a company’s expenses. Being able to market your goods and services at cheaper costs is essentially a perk that you wouldn’t want to miss.

  1. Brand Awareness

The sheer size of the audience that you can reach out to through digital marketing would help your brand gain exposure. Moreover, what people see online play a major role in driving their opinions. Through smart strategies, a digital marketing company could help your business put up a favorable impression. Even a relatively new business with a successful digital marketing strategy can give a tough competition to businesses that have been around for a while.

  1. High Accuracy

Unlike traditional marketing, where you would put up an ad and hope that the people who see the ad would find interest in it, digital marketing is highly targeted. Thus, while carrying out a digital marketing campaign, a company can accurately target customers who are more likely to make a purchase. Such targeting makes digital marketing highly efficient, cost-effective and successful. In fact, a good digital marketing strategy revolves around proper targeting.

  1. Customer Engagement

Through digital marketing, your business can engage with its customers effectively. Understanding what the customers want help to plan necessary improvements. Moreover, customers feel satisfied when they notice that the brand cares about their opinions. Ultimately, this leads to brand loyalty, higher sales and a larger customer base. Staying in touch with your customers at all times is very important for the success of your business.

Why Should You Hire a Digital Marketing Company?

It might seem economical and even logical to let your in-house team handle your digital marketing campaign. While this is possible, it requires a large team of skilled professionals specializing in the various areas of digital marketing. Not many companies can afford it and this is when a professional digital marketing company can help. Now, you might be hesitant about hiring an external company to promote your business. However, here are a few facts that may make you think again:

  1. Comprehensive Services

As mentioned earlier, digital marketing is complex and has various aspects. Your in-house team, or a small company may not be able to cover all of these. However, a leading digital marketing company that has the necessary manpower, infrastructure and expertise can offer a comprehensive range of services. This is certainly much more convenient and efficient than being able to access only certain services or having to hire multiple companies.

How to Start a Digital Marketing Agency From Scratch

  1. Updated Technologies

It is quite evident that digital marketing relies mostly on technology. The team carrying out your digital marketing campaign must be tech-savvy and have access to the latest tools. The reputable companies that offer digital marketing services keep their team equipped with the best tools out there. This implies that you may expect them to use the latest tools and technologies to promote your business.

  1. Profitability

When it comes to marketing, cost-effectiveness depends directly on the amount of profit that a marketing campaign would help you secure. It would not be very wise to spend on marketing efforts that do not bear much results. Now, hiring digital marketing services in India from a reputed company can substantially boost your sales. This would ensure high sales and hence, more lucrative profits.

  1. Reasonable Costs

You may eventually feel hesitant to hire a digital marketing company due to the involved costs. However, keep in mind that maintaining an in-house team isn’t as cheap as it may seem. It involves various expenses, such as salaries, employee training, infrastructure, software updates and more. If you add up all the costs, it would turn out that the services of a good digital marketing company come at fairly reasonable rates.

  1. Professional Experience

One of the key reasons why people prefer to hire professional companies is the treasure of experience and knowledge that they bring. Leading companies hire highly skilled digital marketing experts capable of helping their clients achieve their marketing goals. Thus, when you hire such a company, you automatically hire professionals who are good at their job. Experienced digital marketing experts can come up with creative strategies to help a business dominate the market.

Thus, it seems quite evident that digital marketing is essential for the success of a business. You would want your company to have a sound digital marketing strategy and the means to execute it. Hiring one of the leading companies like Neuronimbus is essentially the best way to go about it. This way, business owners can enjoy their peace of mind knowing that their marketing campaign is in good hands. You would want to find a reliable company and explore the services they offer. Spending some time and effort on hiring a good digital marketing company would certainly be worth it.

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Relocation Movers: Expectation V/s Reality
July 1st, 2021 by shari01

We discover that our assumptions do not match reality at some time in our lives, and relocating is no exception.

Now that you’re here, you’re either thinking about relocating or are in the process of doing so.

We have compiled a list of relocation expectations and reality that most individuals may experience in this article. In addition, how to handle the relocation to avoid such disappointments.

This will mentally serve you for the obstacles ahead and make things simpler for you during their long-distance journey.

Expectations for long-distance relocation are listed below, along with potential realities:


Expectation: Because you are a well-organized person, you may believe that you will be able to stuff and mark your moving boxes one week before the move.

Reality: Oh, my goodness! The movers have arrived, but you are still packing but also labelling.

If you have a relocation coming up, paying greater attention to the preparation stage minimizes the possibility of leaving anything crucial undone.

If you can finish the planning step before your head becomes overburdened by moving-related emotions, you will have minimized your chances of missing something.

Checklists are an excellent way to ensure that you complete all of your tasks on time.


Expectation: Almost all of your stuff will be decluttered.

Reality: It will be pretty tricky for you to get rid of 20% of your belongings.

Decluttering is something you’d like to significantly reduce the expense of your house move. Getting rid of goods you no longer want or need may decrease your packing expenses, loading and unloading time frames and may even reduce the size of the delivery truck you rent.


Expectation: I will keep track of my relocation expenditures to ensure that I do not overspend.

Reality: Oh, why is the expense of my relocation three times what I anticipated?

It is common practice to set a budget for residential relocation expenditures. This is especially crucial if you are planning a do-it-yourself house relocation.

What if your buddies don’t show up on moving day, forcing you to seek labour-only help?

What happens if you wreck the rental vehicle while driving it?

There are several ways to go over your house’s moving budget.

Well, if you opt to use a credible out-of-state relocation movers company and have done your research, provided the whole list of items you are relocating, and taken their advice into account in your choice, you will have a better idea of what the actual price of your move will be.

Nevertheless, certain items can spiral out of hand, so plan for a rainy-day fund.

Delivery of Movers’ Services

Expectation: Every moving company is the same.

Reality: No, there are distinctions.

Some moving firms are more suited to transporting unique objects than others; some provide excellent customer service, and some employ agency workers, while the remainder relies only on highly skilled full-time employees.

Some will utilize environmentally friendly packing materials, while others will not.

It is essential to devote sufficient time to search for a moving company that will provide the expertise and services required for your unique house relocation. Be careful to read reviews and conduct extensive research on the moving company you want to employ.

House Movers Lahore, Office Movers Lahore Pakistan, Furniture Shifting, Packers & Movers - Pak Movers

Setup of Furniture

Expectation: The movers will make sure that the furniture fits through the tight entryway.

Reality: The movers are unable to correctly arrange your furniture.

While there are techniques for a moving firm to transport furniture through the most awkward locations, they cannot magically shift walls or make objects shrink.

Prepare a floor plan for your new home while starting to declutter and before the mover does an on-site assessment. That way, you’ll have enough time to sell, dispose of, or give your extra furniture, and the movers will know exactly what to quote for. Professional movers typically utilize relocation software to correctly estimate and schedule any size move, whether it is an apartment or a considerable mansion home, as well as any sort of transfer, whether it is local, great distance, or storage. So, make sure to choose the right movers for the job.

While anything is possible, arranging and carrying out a long-distance relocation on your own may be challenging.

Hiring a professional moving company that uses relocation management software and the necessary expertise and understanding to ease even a long-distance relocation is your best bet.

The ideal full-service long-distance movers can manage the entire relocation for you. You are in good hands when it comes to packing, transporting, and unpacking.

Finally, your degree of happiness on a moving day will be influenced by your expectations.

Accepting the ideal relocation plan is just perfect until something goes wrong if you properly examine your moving details, plan meticulously, and prepare for the worst. Then your house relocation will be a lot easier and less painful.

We hope that these tips for planning, budgeting, and coordinating your relocation will assist you in preparing for your move.

It is also beneficial to speak with friends and relatives who have moved before so that you can create reasonable expectations for yourself regarding your unique relocation.


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